The effect of music intervention in relation to gender during coronary angiographic procedures: a randomized clinical trial

Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2009 Sep;8(3):200-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ejcnurse.2009.01.001. Epub 2009 Jan 30.


Several studies have evaluated music interventions prior and after coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but there is no clear evidence showing that music has an effect on patients during these procedures. The purpose was to investigate the effects of music on anxiety, angina, pain, relaxation, and comfort in patients during angiographic procedures and to evaluate gender differences. The study was a four-armed, prospective randomized controlled trial included 240 patients undergoing coronary angiography and/or PCI. Patients were allocated to receive relaxing music, MusiCure or standard care during the procedure. Outcome measures were; puncture pain and the discomfort related to it, angina and the discomfort related to it, anxiety, experience of the sound environment, discomfort of lying still, and the doses of anxiolytics and analgesics during the procedure. No differences were found between the music and control groups regarding any of the trial endpoints or gender-related differences. The overall rating of the sound environment and feeling of relaxation was high. In conclusion, music intervention in patients undergoing angiographic procedures was highly feasible, but not effective in this study though the delivery of music went smoothly and did not disturb the examination and patients and staff alike looked favorably on it.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Analgesics / therapeutic use
  • Angina Pectoris / nursing
  • Angina Pectoris / psychology
  • Angina Pectoris / therapy
  • Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary / nursing
  • Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary / psychology*
  • Anxiety / nursing
  • Anxiety / psychology
  • Chest Pain / drug therapy
  • Chest Pain / nursing
  • Chest Pain / psychology
  • Coronary Disease / nursing
  • Coronary Disease / psychology*
  • Coronary Disease / therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Music Therapy / methods*
  • Patient Satisfaction
  • Prospective Studies
  • Sex Factors


  • Analgesics