Clinical and demographic presurgical variables may be associated with unfavorable postsurgical neurological outcome in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). However, few reports include preoperative psychiatric disorders as a factor predictive of long-term postsurgical MTLE-HS neurological outcome. We used Engel's criteria to follow 186 postsurgical patients with MTLE-HS for an average of 6 years. DSM-IV criteria and psychiatric comorbidity criteria specific to epilepsy (interictal dysphoric disorder, postictal and interictal psychosis) were used to assess presurgical psychiatric disorders. Kaplan-Meier event-free survival and adjusted hazard ratios were estimated with unconditional logistic regression. Seventy-seven (41.4%) patients had a preoperative Axis I psychiatric diagnosis. Thirty-six patients had depression, 11 interictal dysphoric disorder, 14 interictal psychosis, 6 postictal psychosis, and 10 anxiety disorders. Twenty-three (12.4%) patients had Axis II personality disorders. Regarding seizure outcome, preoperative anxiety disorders (P=0.009) and personality disorders (P=0.003) were positively correlated with Engel class 1B (remaining auras) or higher. These findings emphasize the importance of presurgical psychiatric evaluation, counseling, and postsurgical follow-up of patients with epilepsy and psychiatric disorders.