This article focuses primarily on the recent literature on abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and the definitions and recommendations published by the World Society for the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome. The definitions regarding increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) are listed and are followed by an overview of the different mechanisms of organ dysfunction associated with intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH). Measurement techniques for IAP are discussed, as are recommendations for organ function support and options for treatment in patients who have IAH. ACS was first described in surgical patients who had abdominal trauma, bleeding, or infection; but recently, ACS has been described in patients who have other pathologies. This article intends to provide critical care physicians with a clear insight into the current state of knowledge regarding IAH and ACS.