Objectives: The objectives were to conduct a systematic review to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the Ottawa Ankle Rules (OAR) to exclude ankle and midfoot fractures in children and the extent to which x-ray use could be reduced without missing significant fractures.
Methods: The authors conducted comprehensive searches of electronic databases and gray literature sources. Independent reviewers applied standard inclusion and exclusion criteria. The criterion standard diagnostic test was an ankle and/or foot x-ray or proxy measure to ensure no missed fractures. Standard 2 x 2 tables were constructed. Sensitivities and specificities were pooled using an approximation of the inverse variance; 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using the exact method. Likelihood ratios (LR +/-) and diagnostic odds ratios were combined under DerSimonian and Laird random effects model.
Results: A pooled analysis of 12 studies (N = 3,130) identified 671 fractures (prevalence = 21.4%). Ten studies reported Salter-Harris Type I (SH-I) fractures. The pooled sensitivity was 98.5% (95% CI = 97.3 to 99.2), suggesting that the OAR can be used to rule out a fracture. Four of 10 missed fractures were characterized: 1 SH-I, 1 SH-IV, and 2 "insignificant fractures" (either SH-I or avulsion fractures <3 mm). The pooled estimate for rate of x-ray reduction was 24.8% (95% CI = 23.3% to 26.3%; range = 5% to 44%).
Conclusions: The OAR appear to be a reliable tool to exclude fractures in children greater than 5 years of age presenting with ankle and midfoot injuries. Employing the OAR would significantly decrease x-ray use with a low likelihood of missing a fracture.