A systematic review was conducted of HPV type distribution in anal cancer and anal high-grade and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL and LSIL). A Medline search of studies using PCR or hybrid capture for HPV DNA detection was completed. A total of 1,824 cases were included: 992 invasive anal cancers, 472 HSIL cases and 360 LSIL cases. Crude HPV prevalence in anal cancer, HSIL, and LSIL was 71, 91 and 88%, respectively. HPV16/18 prevalence was 72% in invasive anal cancer, 69% in HSIL and 27% in LSIL. The HPV 16 and/or 18 prevalence in invasive anal cancer cases was similar to that reported in invasive cervical cancer. If ongoing clinical trials show efficacy in preventing anal HPV infection and associated anal lesions, prophylactic HPV vaccines may play an important role for the primary prevention of these cancers in both genders.
(c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.