We assessed the criterion-related validity of Cureton's equation for estimating peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)) from the one-mile run/walk test in endurance-trained children aged 8-17 years. Altogether, 66 physically active white children and adolescents (32 girls, 34 boys) completed a graded exercise test to volitional exhaustion and the one-mile run/walk test. Cureton's equation was used to estimate VO(2peak), and was assessed using several error measures. Agreement between measured VO(2peak) and estimated VO(2peak) was analysed by the Bland and Altman method. The correlation coefficient between measured VO(2peak) and one-mile run/walk time was -0.59 (P < 0.001) and that between measured and estimated VO(2peak) was 0.70 (P < 0.001). The mean difference between measured and estimated VO(2peak) was 10 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1) (95% CI = 9.2-11.8; P < 0.001). The standard error of the estimate was 3 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1), and the percentage error was 32%. There was a positive association between the measured and estimated VO(2peak) difference and the measured and estimated VO(2peak) mean, which indicates that the higher the VO(2peak) the higher the error of the estimate. These findings did not change markedly when the analyses were performed by sex, age group or body mass status. These results suggest that Cureton's equation systematically underestimates VO(2peak) in endurance-trained children with high VO(2peak).