According to the Peristat II study, based on data from 2004, The Netherlands has almost the highest perinatal mortality rate in Europe. In 2006 perinatal mortality in The Netherlands was also higher than in the Flemish part of its neighbouring country Belgium (10.40 per thousand versus 7.76 per thousand). The difference in perinatal mortality between Flanders and The Netherlands cannot be explained by the risk factors analysed in the Peristat study, nor by the Dutch system of home deliveries. It is more likely that the attitude of Dutch professionals is too expectative, based on too much confidence in a non-intervention policy. Since the Peristat I publication many measures have been taken in The Netherlands in order to improve the quality of perinatal care. The most important are the start of the perinatal audit preparations, better prenatal screening and the introduction of preconception care.