Consequences of major bleeding in hospitalized patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes receiving injectable anticoagulants

Curr Med Res Opin. 2009 Feb;25(2):413-20. doi: 10.1185/03007990802649133.


Objective: To evaluate the burden of major bleed in patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) receiving injectable anticoagulation from the hospital perspective.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of inpatient medical and pharmacy data from the Premier Perspective Comparative Database between 1/1/2003 and 3/31/2006. Hospitalized patients aged >or=18 years with a diagnosis of UA or NSTEMI who received an injectable anticoagulant agent during the same hospital stay were stratified into two cohorts: those who experienced a major bleed during hospitalization and those who did not, defined by the presence of >or=1 pre-specified ICD-9 codes. Length of hospital stay (LOS), inpatient mortality, 30-day readmissions, and hospitalization costs over 30 days were assessed between the cohorts using statistical models to control for covariates which may have impacted the outcomes.

Results: Patients with a major bleed had significantly longer length of stay (13.8 days vs 5.6 days), higher readmission rates (31.3% vs 14.7%), and increased all-cause mortality (15.0% vs 4.5%) compared with patients who did not bleed. After controlling for covariates, major bleeding was significantly associated with increased length of stay, readmission rate, and mortality. Adjusted costs were $13,856 higher on average for patients with a major bleed (95% CI: $13,828-$18,884; p < 0.0001). Subanalyses conducted on patients aged >or=65 years and those undergoing invasive procedures demonstrated higher occurrence of bleed than the general population and a similar impact on outcomes assessed.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the study showed that patients with UA or NSTEMI who experience a major bleed have significantly longer hospital stays, higher readmission rates, increased costs, and increased mortality than those without a major bleed. These data emphasize the importance of considering the safety profile in context of the efficacy of the recommended agents. The findings from this study are limited by the retrospective study design and certain endpoints, such as readmissions, may have been underreported.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / complications*
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / drug therapy
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Anticoagulants / administration & dosage
  • Anticoagulants / therapeutic use*
  • Female
  • Hemorrhage / complications*
  • Hospitalization*
  • Humans
  • Length of Stay
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors


  • Anticoagulants