Morphology of pioneer and follower growth cones in the developing cerebral cortex

J Neurobiol. 1991 Sep;22(6):629-42. doi: 10.1002/neu.480220608.


In the developing nervous systems of both invertebrates and vertebrates, neurons must develop precise sets of axonal connections. One strategy used by both orders of animals is to generate a special class of neurons whose axons "pioneer" the first pathways between these cells and their targets. In the developing mammalian telencephalon, the subplate neurons (which are among the first neurons to be generated in development) extend axons to long-distance subcortical targets before the neurons of the deep cortical layers 5 and 6 have been generated. The axons of layer 5 and 6 neurons later follow a similar pathway to form permanent subcortical projections to the thalamus and tectum, and thereafter the vast majority of subplate neurons die. These results have generated the hypothesis that subplate axons may actually be required for the axons of layer 5 and 6 neurons to innervate their appropriate subcortical targets. The complexity of growth cones has previously been correlated with axonal decision making: differences in growth cone morphologies have been noted in comparisons of leading versus following axons (LoPresti, Macagno, and Levinthal, 1973; Nordlander, 1987; Yaginuma, Homma, Kunzi, and Oppenheim, 1991), and at choice points along axon pathways (Raper, Bastiani, and Goodman, 1983; Tosney and Landmesser, 1985; Caudy and Bentley, 1986a,b; Bovolenta and Mason, 1987; Holt, 1989; Bovolenta and Dodd, 1990; Yaginuma et al., 1991). Thus, as a first step toward addressing the question of whether the axons of deep-layer neurons simply follow subplate axons to their targets, we have studied the morphology of cortical growth cones at various points along the corticothalamic pathway and at different stages of development. We examined the brains of fetal ferrets and cats at ages ranging from embryonic days (E) 24 to E50, using the fluorescent lipophilic tracer 1,1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl indocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) to reveal the axons and growth cones of cortical neurons. Growth cones were drawn, and quantitative measurements of their complexity were made by counting filopodia and calculating their surface area. No morphological differences were found among growth cones at different points along the corticothalamic pathway at a given age. However, growth cones belonging to early-generated cells (likely to be subplate neurons) are significantly larger and more complex than are the growth cones of later-generated cortical neurons. This evidence is consistent with the suggestion that subplate growth cones actively pioneer the corticothalamic pathway, and that the axons of layer 5 and 6 neurons follow it.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Axons / physiology
  • Axons / ultrastructure
  • Cats
  • Cerebral Cortex / cytology
  • Cerebral Cortex / embryology*
  • Embryo, Mammalian
  • Ferrets
  • Gestational Age
  • Neurons / cytology
  • Neurons / physiology*