A porcine-derived acellular dermal scaffold that supports soft tissue regeneration: removal of terminal galactose-alpha-(1,3)-galactose and retention of matrix structure

Tissue Eng Part A. 2009 Jul;15(7):1807-19. doi: 10.1089/ten.tea.2008.0384.


Sub-optimal clinical outcomes after implantation of animal-derived tissue matrices may be attributed to the nature of the processing of the material or to an immune response elicited in response to xenogeneic epitopes. The ability to produce a porcine-derived graft that retains the structural integrity of the extracellular matrix and minimizes potential antigenic response to galactose-alpha-(1,3)-galactose terminal disaccharide (alpha-Gal) may allow the scaffold to support regeneration of native tissue. Dermal tissue from wild-type (WT-porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix [PADM]) or Gal-deficient (Gal(-/-) PADM) pigs was processed to remove cells and DNA while preserving the structural integrity of the extracellular matrix. In addition, the WT tissue was subjected to an enzymatic treatment to minimize the presence of alpha-Gal (Gal-reduced PADM). Extracellular matrix composition and integrity was assessed by histological, immunohistochemical (IHC), and ultrastructural analysis. In vivo performance was evaluated by implantation into the abdominal wall of Old World primates in an exisional repair model. Anti-alpha-Gal activity in the serum of monkeys implanted subcutaneously was assessed by ELISA. Minimal modification to the extracellular matrix was assessed by evaluation of intact structure as demonstrated by staining patterns for type I and type VII collagens, laminin, and fibronectin similar to native porcine skin tissues. Explants from the abdominal wall showed evidence of remodeling, notably fibroblast cell repopulation and revascularization, as early as 1 month. Serum ELISA revealed an initial anti-alpha-Gal induction that decreased to baseline levels over time in the primates implanted with WT-PADM, whereas no or minimal anti-Gal activity was detected in the primates implanted with Gal(-/-) PADM or Gal-reduced PADM. The combination of a nondamaging process, successful removal of cells, and reduction of xenogeneic alpha-Gal antigens from the porcine dermal matrix are critical for producing a material with the ability to remodel and integrate into host tissue and ultimately support soft tissue regeneration.

MeSH terms

  • Abdominal Wall / physiology*
  • Animals
  • Antibody Formation / immunology
  • Antigens, Surface / immunology
  • Calorimetry, Differential Scanning
  • Chlorocebus aethiops / immunology
  • Decorin
  • Dermis / metabolism*
  • Disaccharides / isolation & purification*
  • Enzymes / metabolism
  • Extracellular Matrix / metabolism*
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G / immunology
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Implants, Experimental
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Proteoglycans / metabolism
  • Regeneration / physiology*
  • Sus scrofa
  • Temperature
  • Tissue Scaffolds*
  • alpha-Galactosidase / metabolism


  • Antigens, Surface
  • DCN protein, human
  • Decorin
  • Disaccharides
  • Enzymes
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Proteoglycans
  • galactosyl-(1-3)galactose
  • alpha-Galactosidase