Current technologies for high-throughput molecular profiling of large numbers of genetically different individuals offer great potential for elucidating the genotype-to-phenotype relationship. Variation in molecular and phenotypic traits can be correlated to DNA sequence variation using the methods of quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. In addition, the correlation structure in the molecular and phenotypic traits can be informative for inferring the underlying molecular networks. For this, new methods are emerging to distinguish among causality, reactivity, or independence of traits based upon logic involving underlying QTL. These methods are becoming increasingly popular in plant genetic studies as well as in studies on many other organisms.