We have developed a novel tuberculosis (TB) vaccine; a combination of the DNA vaccines expressing mycobacterial heat shock protein 65 (HSP65) and interleukin 12 (IL-12) delivered by the hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ)-envelope and -liposome (HSP65+IL-12/HVJ). This vaccine provided therapeutic efficacy as well as remarkable protective efficacy via CD8(+) T and CD4(+) T cells in murine models compared with the saline controls, on the basis of CFU of number of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB), and survival of extremely drug resistant TB (XDR-TB) challenged mice. Furthermore, we extended our studies to a cynomolgus monkey model, which is currently the best animal model of human tuberculosis. This vaccine exerted therapeutic efficacy (survival and immune responses) in the TB-infected monkeys. These data indicate that our novel DNA vaccine might be useful against Mycobacterium tuberculosis including XDR-TB and MDR-TB for human therapeutic clinical trials.