Redox regulation of nuclear post-translational modifications during NF-kappaB activation

Antioxid Redox Signal. 2009 Sep;11(9):2209-22. doi: 10.1089/ars.2009.2463.


The transcription factor NF-kappaB controls the expression of hundreds of genes involved in the regulation of the immune/inflammatory response, development, and apoptosis. In resting cells, NF-kappaB proteins are sequestered in the cytoplasm through their tight association with IkappaB proteins. NF-kappaB activation relies on the signal-induced IkappaB phosphorylation and degradation, thereby allowing the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB proteins. In the nucleus, several post-translational modifications of NF-kappaB and chromatin remodeling of target genes are mandatory for NF-kappaB DNA binding and full transcription. Since 1991, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in NF-kappaB activation. ROS enhance the cytoplasmic signaling pathways leading to NF-kappaB nuclear translocation, but reduction/oxidation (redox) also controls several key steps in the nuclear phase of the NF-kappaB program, including chromatin remodeling, recruitment of co-activators, and DNA binding. Here we describe the redox regulation of NF-kappaB activity in the nucleus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism*
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / metabolism
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism*
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism


  • NF-kappa B
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Hydrogen Peroxide