Our purpose was to examine the effects of self-efficacy on the pain behaviors exhibited by patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Seventy-two patients with RA were assessed using a standardized videotaping procedure for rating specific pain behaviors such as limps, facial grimaces, and guarded movements. Patients also completed questionnaires measuring self-efficacy and depression. Hierarchical regression was used to assess the relationship between self-efficacy and pain behavior after the effects of demographic characteristics and disease activity were statistically controlled. Higher self-efficacy was found to be related to fewer pain behaviors. In contrast, depression was found to be unrelated to pain behavior. Our results indicate that the pain behaviors that patients with RA exhibit are related to their self-efficacy, not solely to their disease activity.