Intravitreal toxicity of ketorolac tris salt and flurbiprofen

Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2009 Jan-Feb;40(1):38-42. doi: 10.3928/15428877-20090101-14.


Background and objective: To determine the retinal toxicity of intravitreal ketorolac tris salt and flurbiprofen.

Materials and methods: Thirty-two New Zealand rabbits were injected intravitreally with 125, 250, or 500 microg or 1 mg of ketorolac tris salt or flurbiprofen in one eye and 8 fellow eyes were injected with 5% dextrose as a control. All animals underwent indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit-lamp biomicroscopy before injection and on days 1, 7, and 14 after the intravitreal injection. Electroretinography was performed on all animals before injection and on day 14 after the injection before the animals were killed. The enucleated eyes were prepared for histology.

Results: Clinical examination, electroretinography results, and histological evaluation demonstrated no signs of retinal toxicity for either drug at any dose.

Conclusions: Intravitreal doses up to 1 mg of ketorolac tris salt and 1 mg of flurbiprofen did not cause retinal toxicity in the rabbit eye.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / toxicity*
  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / toxicity*
  • Electroretinography
  • Flurbiprofen / toxicity*
  • Ketorolac Tromethamine / toxicity*
  • Ophthalmoscopy
  • Rabbits
  • Retina / drug effects*
  • Retina / physiopathology
  • Vitreous Body / drug effects*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
  • Ketorolac Tromethamine
  • Flurbiprofen