Interference with T-cell function increases the risk of infections, especially during the early post-transplant period. Belatacept, a costimulation blocker, is currently being tested in phase III clinical trials. Here we report a renal transplant recipient who received belatacept and developed severe Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) with fatal superinfections 4 years post transplant. Cytomegalovirus infection preceded PCP, which typically occurs in overimmunosuppressed patients, but has not yet been reported under T-cell costimulation blockade in transplant patients. This case illustrates the possibility of excessive immunosuppression even with a lymphocyte-specific regimen.