Effect of triamcinolone acetonide on vascular endothelial growth factor and occludin levels in branch retinal vein occlusion

Am J Ophthalmol. 2009 May;147(5):838-46, 846.e1-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2008.12.006. Epub 2009 Feb 10.


Purpose: To investigate the molecular mechanism by which triamcinolone acetonide (TA) may reduce edema in a porcine model of branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO).

Design: Animal study.

Method: After baseline ophthalmoscopic examination and fundus photography, a BRVO was created photothrombotically in each eye of 6 pigs, using argon green photocoagulation and intravenous Rose Bengal. Following this, the left eye was injected intravitreally with 4 mg/0.1 ml TA. After 11 weeks, the eyes were re-examined. Fluorescein angiography, in addition to ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography, was performed. Following sacrifice of the animals, the eyes were enucleated and processed. The distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), occludin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were localized by immunofluorescence cytochemistry on 10 microm frozen retinal sections of TA-treated and untreated eyes.

Results: Retinal VEGF levels were significantly lower in the TA-treated eyes as compared with the untreated eye (P = .002). Conversely occludin levels were significantly higher in the treated eye (P = .026). There was also a significant reduction in GFAP immunoreactivity in the Muller cells of the treated eyes (P = .015) with no statistical significance in the astrocytes (P = .065).

Conclusion: Intravitreal TA down regulates VEGF, which may prevent a decrease in occludin and also inhibits an increase in GFAP expression in Muller cells. These events may contribute to a reduction in the blood retinal barrier breakdown that occurs in BRVO and promote resolution of the associated retinal edema.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood-Retinal Barrier / drug effects
  • Capillary Permeability
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Down-Regulation
  • Fluorescein Angiography
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism
  • Glucocorticoids / pharmacology*
  • Injections
  • Macular Edema / drug therapy*
  • Macular Edema / metabolism
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism*
  • Occludin
  • Ophthalmoscopy
  • Retinal Vein Occlusion / drug therapy*
  • Retinal Vein Occlusion / metabolism
  • Swine
  • Triamcinolone Acetonide / pharmacology*
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism*
  • Vitreous Body


  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Occludin
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Triamcinolone Acetonide