An optimized method to detect influenza virus and human rhinovirus from exhaled breath and the airborne environment

J Environ Monit. 2009 Feb;11(2):314-7. doi: 10.1039/b813520g. Epub 2008 Dec 1.


Respiratory viruses are difficult to characterize in the airborne environment due to their low concentration and the presence of a wide range of inhibitors. As a first step in studying airborne viruses, we optimized molecular biology methods to quantify influenza viruses and human rhinovirus. Quantitative PCR was used as an endpoint to evaluate RNA extraction techniques and reverse transcription protocols. We found that a Trizol-chloroform extraction and MultiScribe RT increased virus detection 10-fold compared to methods used in published field studies of airborne respiratory viruses. Virus was recovered without inhibition from samples contaminated with up to 50 microg/sample of particulate matter. The methods developed can be used in studies of airborne respiratory viruses.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Air Microbiology*
  • Chemical Fractionation / methods
  • Humans
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype / genetics
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype / isolation & purification*
  • Particulate Matter / chemistry
  • RNA, Viral / isolation & purification
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods*
  • Rhinovirus / genetics
  • Rhinovirus / isolation & purification*
  • Sensitivity and Specificity


  • Particulate Matter
  • RNA, Viral