DNA microarrays: an introduction to the technology

Methods Mol Biol. 2009;509:1-14. doi: 10.1007/978-1-59745-372-1_1.


DNA microarrays allow the comprehensive genetic analysis of an organism or a sample. They are based on probes, which are immobilized in an ordered two-dimensional pattern on substrates, such as nylon membranes or glass slides. Probes are either spotted cDNAs or oligonucleotides and are designed to be specific for an organism, a gene, a genetic variant (mutation or polymorphism), or intergenic regions. Thus, they can be used for example for genotyping, expression analysis, or studies of protein-DNA interactions, and in the biomedical field they allow the detection of pathogens, antibiotic resistances, gene mutations and polymorphisms, and pathogenic states and can guide therapy. Microarrays, which cover the whole genome of an organism, are as well available as those which are focussed on genes related to a certain diagnostic application.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biotechnology / instrumentation*
  • Biotechnology / methods
  • Biotechnology / trends
  • Chromatin Immunoprecipitation / instrumentation*
  • Chromatin Immunoprecipitation / methods
  • Equipment Design
  • Equipment Failure Analysis
  • Gene Expression Profiling / instrumentation*
  • Gene Expression Profiling / methods
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / instrumentation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods*
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / trends
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA / instrumentation*
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA / methods
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA / trends