Phosphoproteomics involves identification of phosphoproteins, precise mapping, and quantification of phosphorylation sites, and eventually, revealing their biological function. In plants, several systematic phosphoproteomic analyses have recently been performed to optimize in vitro and in vivo technologies to reveal components of the phosphoproteome. The discovery of novel substrates for specific protein kinases is also an important issue. Development of a new tool has enabled rapid identification of potential kinase substrates such as kinase assays using plant protein microarrays. Progress has also been made in quantitative and dynamic analysis of mapped phosphorylation sites. Increased quantity of experimentally verified phosphorylation sites in plants has prompted the creation of dedicated web-resources for plant-specific phosphoproteomics data. This resulted in development of computational prediction methods yielding significantly improved sensitivity and specificity for the detection of phosphorylation sites in plants when compared to methods trained on less plant-specific data. In this review, we present an update on phosphoproteomic studies in plants and summarize the recent progress in the computational prediction of plant phosphorylation sites. The application of the experimental and computed results in understanding the phosphoproteomic networks of cellular and metabolic processes in plants is discussed. This is a continuation of our comprehensive review series on plant phosphoproteomics.