Narcolepsy is a chronic neurologic disease whose main features are excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. It is a rare disorder which is most frequently sporadic. The age of onset shows tow peaks. Both genetic and environmental factors play in its pathophysiolgy. Association with a specific HLA antigen and implication of the hypocretin system are very important findings. Narcolepsy's diagnosis is based on clinical findings but polysomnographic monitoring and multiple sleep latency test are usually necessary. Treatment of narcolepsy has been substantially modified with the advent of Modafinil which is effective as amphetamine with less undesirable effects. New etiologic treatments, such as hypocretin agonists, are currently being developed.