In response to the anticipated growth of the veteran population with chronic disabling diseases, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) established Home Based Primary Care (HBPC). This article focuses on that program, a home care program that specifically targets individuals with complex chronic disabling disease, with the goal of maximizing the independence of the patient and reducing preventable emergency room visits and hospitalizations. HBPC programs provide comprehensive longitudinal primary care by an interdisciplinary team in the homes of veterans with complex chronic disease, who are not effectively managed by routine clinic-based care. HBPC is very different from and complementary to standard skilled home care services, in population, processes and outcomes. HBPC targets persons with advanced chronic disease, rather than remediable conditions. HBPC provides comprehensive care of multiple co-morbidities, rather than problem-focused care. HBPC is delivered by an interdisciplinary team, rather than one or two independent providers. Currently operating in three-fourths of VA facilities, HBPC expansion continues to be driven by clinical success and the highest satisfaction of all VA services. VA HBPC is a model to emulate for the care of persons with complex, chronic disabling conditions, improving quality without added cost, and maximizing their independence through comprehensive longitudinal interdisciplinary care delivered in their homes.