Psychometric properties of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence

J Bras Pneumol. 2009 Jan;35(1):73-82. doi: 10.1590/s1806-37132009000100011.
[Article in English, Portuguese]


Objective: The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) is a screening instrument for physical nicotine dependence and is extensively used in various countries. The objective of the present report was to review articles related to the psychometric properties of the FTND.

Methods: A systematic search for articles published up through December of 2007 was carried out in various electronic databases. The following search terms were used: 'Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence'; 'FTND'; 'psychometric'; 'validity'; 'reliability'; 'feasibility'; and 'factors'. We included articles published in English, Spanish or Portuguese and in which the psychometric properties of the FTND were evaluated.

Results: Twenty-six studies related to the psychometric properties of the FTND were identified in the indexed literature. Analysis of the studies confirmed the reliability of the FTND for the assessment of nicotine dependence in different settings and populations.

Conclusions: Further validation studies using previously validated instruments as a comparative measure are needed before the extensive use of the FTND can be justified on the basis of its psychometric qualities.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Humans
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / diagnosis*
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / psychology


  • Biomarkers