Background: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is most commonly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and the use of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The management of H. pylori infection has improved radically in recent years; however, the prescription of ASA and NSAIDs has increased over the same period.
Aim: To evaluate the current global incidence and prevalence of PUD by systematic review of the literature published over the last decade.
Methods: Systematic searches of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library.
Results: The annual incidence rates of PUD were 0.10-0.19% for physician-diagnosed PUD and 0.03-0.17% when based on hospitalization data. The 1-year prevalence based on physician diagnosis was 0.12-1.50% and that based on hospitalization data was 0.10-0.19%. The majority of studies reported a decrease in the incidence or prevalence of PUD over time.
Conclusions: Peptic ulcer disease remains a common condition, although reported incidence and prevalence are decreasing. This decrease may be due to a decrease in H. pylori-associated PUD.