Chlamydia trachomatis infections affect young, sexually active persons. Risk factors include multiple partners and failure to use condoms. The incidence of infection has increased in the past 10 years. Untreated C. trachomatis infections are responsible for a large proportion of salpingitis, ectopic pregnancy, infertility and, to a lesser extent, epididymitis. Screening is a possible intervention to control the infection, which is often asymptomatic. The emergence of lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis in men who have sex with men, in Europe, and of a variant with a deletion in the cryptic plasmid, in Sweden, are new features of C. trachomatis infections in the last years. A diagnosis is best made by using nucleic acid amplification tests, because they perform well and do not require invasive procedures for specimen collection. Single-dose therapy has been a significant development for treatment of an uncomplicated infection of the patient and his or her sexual partner.