Serum selenium and peripheral arterial disease: results from the national health and nutrition examination survey, 2003-2004

Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Apr 15;169(8):996-1003. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwn414. Epub 2009 Feb 16.


The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of the association of serum selenium with the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease among 2,062 US men and women 40 years of age or older participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004. Serum selenium was measured by using inductively coupled plasma-dynamic reaction cell-mass spectrometry. Peripheral arterial disease was defined as an ankle-brachial blood pressure index <0.90. The age-, sex-, and race-adjusted prevalence of peripheral arterial disease decreased with increasing serum selenium (P for linear trend = 0.02), but there was an indication of an upturn in risk in the highest quartile of serum selenium. The fully adjusted odds ratios for peripheral arterial disease comparing selenium quartiles 2, 3, and 4 with the lowest quartile were 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.37, 1.52), 0.58 (95% confidence interval: 0.28, 1.19), and 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.34, 1.31), respectively. In spline regression models, peripheral arterial disease prevalence decreased with increasing serum selenium levels up to 150-160 ng/mL, followed by a gradual increase at higher selenium levels. The association between serum selenium levels and the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease was not statistically significant, although a U-shaped relation was suggested.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Body Mass Index
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism
  • Cholesterol / metabolism
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Humans
  • Lipoproteins, LDL / metabolism
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Odds Ratio
  • Peripheral Vascular Diseases / blood*
  • Peripheral Vascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Prevalence
  • Regression Analysis
  • Selenium / blood*
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Lipoproteins, LDL
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Cholesterol
  • Selenium