Deficiency of minerals causes functional abnormality of enzymes, frequently resulting in metabolic disturbance. We investigated possible relationship between minerals and metabolic syndrome by analysis of hair tissue minerals. We selected 848 subjects older than 20 years of age at Ajou University Hospital from May 2004 to February 2007. We excluded the subjects who had cancers, steroid and thyroid medication, and incomplete record from the study. Finally, 343 subjects were eligible. We performed cross-sectional analysis for the relationship between minerals and metabolic syndrome. The contents of calcium, magnesium, and copper in the metabolic syndrome group were significantly lower than those of the normal group, whereas the amounts of sodium, potassium, and mercury in the metabolic syndrome group were significantly higher than those of the normal group. By dividing the subjects into quartile with the level of calcium, magnesium, and mercury concentrations, we carried out logistic regression analysis to study the subjects and found that the subjects in the third quartile of calcium and magnesium concentrations had significantly lower odds ratio (OR) of the metabolic syndrome compared with that of the lowest quartile group [OR = 0.30, confidence interval (CI) = 0.10-0.89; OR = 0.189, CI = 0.063-0.566] and that the subjects in the highest mercury quartile had significantly higher OR of the metabolic syndrome compared with that of the lowest mercury quartile group (OR = 7.35, CI = 1.73-31.1). As part of the metabolic syndrome, the optimal calcium and magnesium concentrations in hair tissue may reflect decreased risk of metabolic syndrome, whereas high mercury concentration in hair tissue may indicate increased risk of metabolic syndrome.