In clinically organ-confined prostate cancer patients, bloodstream tumour cell dissemination generally occurs, and may be enhanced by surgical prostate manipulation. To evaluate cancer-cell seeding impact upon patient recurrence-free survival, 155 patients were prospectively enrolled then followed. Here, 57 patients presented blood prostate cell shedding preoperatively and intraoperatively (group I). Of the 98 preoperatively negative patients, 53 (54%) remained negative (group II) and 45 (46%) became intraoperatively positive (group III). Median biological and clinical recurrence-free time was far shorter in group I (36.2 months, P<0.0001) than in group II (69.6 months) but did not significantly differ in group II and III (69.6 months vs 65.0). Such 5-year follow-up data show that preoperative circulating prostate cells are an independent prognosis factor of recurrence. Moreover, tumour handling induces cancer-cell seeding but surgical blood dissemination does not accelerate cancer evolution.