Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and aetiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and trends in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in HIV-infected patients.
Methods: Ascertainment and review of CKD cases among patients attending King's College and Brighton Hospitals, UK were carried out. CKD was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min for > or =3 months. Longitudinal eGFR slopes were produced to examine trends in renal function before, during and after exposure to indinavir (IDV) or tenofovir (TFV).
Results: CKD prevalence was 2.4%. While HIV-associated nephropathy accounted for 62% of CKD in black patients, 95% of CKD in white/other patients was associated with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis and/or drug toxicity. Exposure to IDV or TFV was associated with an accelerated decline in renal function (4.6-fold and 3.7-fold, respectively) in patients with CKD. In patients initiating IDV, age > or =50 years increased the odds of CKD [odds ratio (OR) 4.9], while in patients initiating TFV, age > or =50 years (OR 5.4) and eGFR 60-75 mL/min (OR 17.2) were associated with developing CKD.
Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of metabolic and vascular disease to the burden of CKD in an ageing HIV-infected cohort. In patients who developed CKD, treatment with IDV or TFV was associated with an accelerated decline in renal function.