PLASTOCHRON3/GOLIATH encodes a glutamate carboxypeptidase required for proper development in rice

Plant J. 2009 Jun;58(6):1028-40. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2009.03841.x. Epub 2009 Feb 18.


Most aerial parts of the plant body are products of the continuous activity of the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Leaves are the major component of the aerial plant body, and their temporal and spatial distribution mainly determines shoot architecture. Here we report the identification of the rice gene PLASTOCHRON3 (PLA3)/GOLIATH (GO) that regulates various developmental processes including the rate of leaf initiation (the plastochron). PLA3/GO encodes a glutamate carboxypeptidase, which is thought to catabolize small acidic peptides and produce small signaling molecules. pla3 exhibits similar phenotypes to pla1 and pla2- a shortened plastochron, precocious leaf maturation and rachis branch-to-shoot conversion in the reproductive phase. However, in contrast to pla1 and pla2, pla3 showed pleiotropic phenotypes including enlarged embryo, seed vivipary, defects in SAM maintenance and aberrant leaf morphology. Consistent with these pleiotropic phenotypes, PLA3 is expressed in the whole plant body, and is involved in plant hormone homeostasis. Double mutant analysis revealed that PLA1, PLA2 and PLA3 are regulated independently but function redundantly. Our results suggest that PLA3 modulates various signaling pathways associated with a number of developmental processes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Carboxypeptidases / genetics
  • Carboxypeptidases / metabolism*
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Genes, Plant
  • Genetic Complementation Test
  • Mutation
  • Oryza / enzymology
  • Oryza / genetics*
  • Oryza / growth & development
  • Phylogeny
  • Plant Leaves / enzymology
  • Plant Leaves / genetics
  • Plant Leaves / growth & development*
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism*
  • RNA, Plant / genetics
  • Sequence Alignment


  • Plant Proteins
  • RNA, Plant
  • Carboxypeptidases
  • glutamate carboxypeptidase