Hemolysis, myopathy, and cardiac disease associated with hereditary phosphofructokinase deficiency in two Whippets

Vet Clin Pathol. 2009 Mar;38(1):46-51. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-165X.2008.00089.x. Epub 2008 Oct 28.


Two male castrated Whippet littermates were presented at 1 year of age for pallor, tachycardia, systolic heart murmur, dark yellow to orange feces, intermittent lethargy, pigmenturia, and muscle shivering or cramping after exercise. Persistent macrocytic hypochromic anemia with marked reticulocytosis and metarubricytosis was found when CBC results were compared with reference values for Whippets. Increased serum creatine kinase activity and hyperkalemia also were sometimes present over the 4-year period of evaluation. Progressively increasing serum concentrations of N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide suggested cardiac disease. Erythrocytes from the whippets were less osmotically fragile but more alkaline fragile than those from control dogs. Erythrocyte phosphofructokinase (PFK) activities and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentrations were decreased. Restriction enzyme-based DNA test screening and DNA sequencing revealed the same mutation in the muscle-PFK gene of the Whippets as seen in English Springer Spaniel dogs with PFK deficiency. This is the first report of PFK deficiency in Whippet dogs. In addition to causing hemolysis and exertional myopathy, heart disease may be a prominent clinical component of PFK deficiency in this breed and has not been previously recognized in PFK-deficient English Springer Spaniels.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Dog Diseases / genetics
  • Dog Diseases / pathology*
  • Dogs
  • Erythrocytes / enzymology
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Heart Diseases / complications
  • Heart Diseases / genetics
  • Heart Diseases / veterinary*
  • Hemolysis*
  • Male
  • Muscular Diseases / complications
  • Muscular Diseases / genetics
  • Muscular Diseases / veterinary*
  • Phosphofructokinases / deficiency*


  • Phosphofructokinases