Several studies suggest that higher circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels are associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Breast cancer risk and circulating IGF-I concentration appear to be partly heritable, thus genetic variation at IGF1 could influence IGF-I levels and breast cancer risk. We investigated the association of IGF1 CA repeat variants with premenopausal breast cancer risk using a family-based design. The study sample included 840 families from the Ontario Familial Breast Cancer Registry (OFBCR) and the Australian Breast Cancer Family Registry (ABCFR). Three CA repeat variants, at 5', 3', and in intron 2 were genotyped (5'CA, 3'CA, In2CA). We found several nominally significant associations. The 5'CA-21 allele (P = 0.03) and In2CA-212 allele (P = 0.04) were associated with lower risk, and the In2CA-216 allele with higher risk (P = 0.04) for the combined ABCFR-OFBCR. These associations were not significant after taking into account multiple comparisons. In2CA-216 was more strongly associated with risk when we used a recessive instead of an additive model (P = 0.01). 5'CA alleles of repeat length 18-20 were associated with higher risk (P = 0.02), and 5'CA alleles of >20 repeats were associated with lower risk (P = 0.01). These associations were significant in the OFBCR (In2CA-216 recessive, P = 0.02; 5'CA 18-20 and >20 allele grouping, P = 0.01) but not strongly supported by the ABCFR (In2CA-216 recessive, P = 0.14; 5'CA 18-20, P = 0.25; 5'CA >20, P = 0.20). The associations we found could be due to chance as many comparisons were made. Our results do not strongly support an association between these IGF1 variants and breast cancer risk.