Influenza is a major causeof morbidity and mortality. Vaccination remains the most important means of preventing and controlling influenza. A review of the published literature shows that vaccination of children, healthy younger adults, the elderly, and both children and adults with high-risk medical conditions provides substantial benefits, although the types of benefits vary by age. Vaccination also generally provides benefit even during poor match seasons. Strategies to reduce transmission within households and communities throughthe vaccination of school children and to reduce transmission within health care settings through the vaccination of healthcare workers are also promising. Published by Elsevier Ltd.