Cervical cancer screening and updated Pap guidelines

Prim Care. 2009 Mar;36(1):131-49, ix. doi: 10.1016/j.pop.2008.10.008.


Cervical cancer and its dysplasia precursors account for significant morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus infection is common, preventable, and now widely accepted as the causative agent with oncogenic potential in the development of cervical cancer. Screening via Papanicolaou testing is critical, and interpretation of test results with knowledge of patient risk factors is imperative. Many evidence-based guidelines for screening, interpretation, and management have been developed and are widely available for use.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis*
  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology
  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / etiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Mass Screening*
  • Papanicolaou Test*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / complications
  • Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology
  • Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control
  • Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic*
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / etiology
  • Vaginal Smears*
  • Women's Health*


  • Papillomavirus Vaccines