Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health threat in the United States, with increasing prevalence, high costs, and poor outcomes. More widespread effort at the prevention, early detection, evaluation, and management of CKD and antecedent conditions could prevent complications of decreased kidney function, slow the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure, and reduce cardiovascular disease risk. In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched an initiative on CKD. As part of this initiative, the CDC convened an expert panel to outline recommendations for a comprehensive public health strategy to prevent the development, progression, and complications of CKD in the United States. The panel adapted strategies for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention for chronic diseases to the conceptual model for the development, progression, and complications of CKD; reviewed epidemiological data from US federal agencies; and discussed ways of integrating public health efforts from various agencies and organizations. The panel recommended a 10-point plan to the CDC to improve surveillance, screening, education, and awareness directed at 3 target populations: people with CKD or at increased risk of developing CKD; providers, hospitals, and clinical laboratories; and the general public. Cooperation among federal, state, and local governmental and private organizations will be necessary to carry out these recommendations.