Objective: To determine the effect of closure or non-closure of the visceral peritoneum at cesarean delivery on uterine scar formation assessed at repeat cesarean delivery.
Methods: Women undergoing initial cesarean delivery were allocated into 2 groups: group 1 underwent visceral peritoneal closure, while in group 2 the visceral peritoneum was not closed. At repeat cesarean delivery 4 specimens from the initial uterine scar were collected and assessed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.
Results: In group 1, 57% of women had adhesions compared with 20.6% in group 2 (P<0.05). Light microscopy revealed reactive mesothelial hyperplasia (51.8% vs 13.7%), submesothelial fibrosis (48.1% vs 6.8%), and neoangiogenesis of mesothelial stroma (44.4% vs 12%) in group 1 and group 2 patients, respectively (P<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy showed more patients with pericytes on the surface of microvessels in group 1 compared with group 2 (26.3+/-1.4 vs 11.5+/-1.1 patients; P<0.05).
Conclusion: Closure of the visceral peritoneum at cesarean delivery may produce an inflammatory reaction and adhesions, evidenced by reactive and regenerative mesothelial hyperplasia and submesothelial fibrosis.