Purpose: We documented the effects of intradetrusor injections of botulinum neurotoxin type A (Botox(R)) for refractory idiopathic detrusor overactivity so that prospective patients maybe properly informed about possible improvement in quality of life, the duration of interinjection intervals and the risk of clean intermittent self-catheterization.
Materials and methods: A total of 81 consecutive patients with refractory idiopathic detrusor overactivity treated with intradetrusor injections of 200 U botulinum neurotoxin type A at 20 sites per injection course were evaluated in this prospective, nonrandomized, open label cohort study. The primary outcome was changes in quality of life, as assessed by the short form of the Urogenital Distress Inventory and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire before and after treatment. Secondary outcomes were the interinjection interval and the need for clean intermittent self-catheterization.
Results: After intradetrusor botulinum neurotoxin type A injections there was significant improvement in quality of life, which was sustained after repeat injections. Mean Urogenital Distress Inventory and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire scores decreased from 56 to 26 and 59 to 21 after injection 1 in 81 patients, from 52 to 30 and 51 to 24 after injection 2 in 24, from 40 to 19 and 43 to 17 after injection 3 in 13, from 44 to 17 and 61 to 15 after injection 4 in 6 and from 51 to 17 and 63 to 14 after injection 5 in 4, respectively. The median interinjection interval was 15, 12, 14 and 13 months between injections 1 and 2, 2 and 3, 3 and 4, and 4 and 5, respectively. Considering a post-void residual urine of greater than 100 ml with lower urinary tract symptoms as the indication for clean intermittent self-catheterization, the overall clean intermittent self-catheterization rate after treatment was 43%.
Conclusions: Intradetrusor botulinum neurotoxin type A injections for refractory idiopathic detrusor overactivity significantly improved quality of life. This effect was sustained after repeat injection. More than 2 of 5 patients with refractory idiopathic detrusor overactivity required clean intermittent self-catheterization after botulinum neurotoxin type A injections and all prospective patients should be informed about this.