Metabolic profiling of transgenic rice with cryIAc and sck genes: an evaluation of unintended effects at metabolic level by using GC-FID and GC-MS

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2009 Mar 15;877(8-9):725-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2009.01.040. Epub 2009 Feb 5.


The cryIAc and sck genes were introduced to the rice for the purpose of improving the insect resistance. Metabolic profiles of wild and transgenic rice were compared to assess the unintended effects related to gene modification. Wild samples with different sowing dates or sites were also examined to determine the environmental effects on metabolites. The polar compounds of grains were extracted, trimethylsilylated and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to differentiate transgenic and wild rice grains. The significantly distinguishable metabolites were picked out, and then identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was found that both the environment and gene manipulation had remarkable impacts on the contents of glycerol-3-phosphate, citric acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, hexadecanoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester, sucrose, 9-octadecenoic acid (Z)-, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester and so on. Sucrose, mannitol and glutamic acid had a significant increase in transgenic grains in contrast to those in non-genetically modified (GM) rice.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Endotoxins / genetics
  • Endotoxins / metabolism*
  • Flame Ionization / methods*
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry / methods*
  • Hemolysin Proteins / genetics
  • Hemolysin Proteins / metabolism*
  • Metabolome*
  • Oryza / chemistry*
  • Oryza / genetics
  • Oryza / metabolism
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism*
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / chemistry
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / genetics
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / metabolism
  • Trypsin Inhibitors / genetics
  • Trypsin Inhibitors / metabolism*


  • Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Endotoxins
  • Hemolysin Proteins
  • Plant Proteins
  • Trypsin Inhibitors
  • insecticidal crystal protein, Bacillus Thuringiensis