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Review
, 82 (2), 201-11

Sphingosine-1-phosphate as a Mediator of High-Density Lipoprotein Effects in Cardiovascular Protection

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Review

Sphingosine-1-phosphate as a Mediator of High-Density Lipoprotein Effects in Cardiovascular Protection

Katherine Sattler et al. Cardiovasc Res.

Abstract

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has gained special attention in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) field because HDL is the most prominent plasma carrier of S1P and because the S1P content of HDL may be responsible for many of the pleiotropic functions of HDL. This revelation has come from the evidence that HDL employ S1P receptors and signalling pathways to implement several HDL-ascribed biological effects as diverse as endothelial nitric oxide production, vasodilation, survival, and cardioprotection. This review focuses on HDL effects that are completely or partially mediated by the S1P content of the HDL particle and differentiates them from genuine HDL effects that are S1P-independent. In addition, the functional properties of 'free', HDL-unbound S1P are sometimes different from or even contrary to those of HDL-associated S1P. The nature of the physical interactions between HDL and local and systemic S1P production will be discussed as well as their consequences for organ function. Finally, we will elucidate the potential benefits and limitations of S1P analogues as a new class of functional HDL mimetics for cardiovascular therapy.

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