The cultivated peanut Arachis hypogaea is a tetraploid, likely derived from A- and B-genome species. Reproductive isolation of the cultigen has resulted in limited genetic variability for important traits. Artificial hybridizations using selected diploid parents have introduced alleles from wild species, but improved understanding of recently classified B-genome accessions would aid future introgression work. To this end, 154 cDNA probes were used to produce 1887 RFLP bands scored on 18 recently classified or potential B-genome accessions and 16 previously identified species. One group of B-genome species consisted of Arachis batizocoi, Arachis cruziana, Arachis krapovickasii, and one potential additional species; a second consisted of Arachis ipaënsis, Arachis magna, and Arachis gregoryi. Twelve uncharacterized accessions grouped with A-genome species. Many RFLP markers diagnostic of A. batizocoi group specificity mapped to linkage group pair 2/12, suggesting selection or genetic control of chromosome pairing. The combination of Arachis duranensis and A. ipaënsis most closely reconstituted the marker haplotype of A. hypogaea, but differences allow for other progenitors or genetic rearrangements after polyploidization. From 2 to 30 alleles per locus were present, demonstrating section Arachis wild species variation of potential use for expanding the cultigen's genetic basis.