Objective: Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare early-onset accelerated senescence syndrome. In HGPS, a recently identified de novo dominant mutation of the lamin A gene (LMNA) produces abnormal lamin A, resulting in compromised nuclear membrane integrity. Clinical features include sclerotic skin, cardiovascular and bone abnormalities, and marked growth retardation. Craniofacial features include 'bird-like' facies, alopecia, craniofacial disproportion, and dental crowding. Our prospective study describes dental, oral soft tissue, and craniofacial bone features in HGPS.
Methods: Fifteen patients with confirmed p.G608G LMNA mutation (1-17 years, seven males, eight females) received comprehensive oral evaluations. Anomalies of oral soft tissue, gnathic bones, and dentition were identified.
Results: Radiographic findings included hypodontia (n = 7), dysmorphic teeth (n = 5), steep mandibular angles (n = 11), and thin basal bone (n = 11). Soft tissue findings included ogival palatal arch (n = 8), median sagittal palatal fissure (n = 7), and ankyloglossia (n = 7). Calculated dental ages (9 months to 11 years 2 months) were significantly lower than chronological ages (1 year 6 months to 17 years 8 months) (P = 0.002). Eleven children manifested a shorter mandibular body, anterior/posterior cranial base and ramus, but a larger gonial angle, compared to age/gender/race norms.
Conclusion: Novel oral-craniofacial phenotypes and quantification of previously reported features are presented. Our findings expand the HGPS phenotype and provide additional insight into the complex pathogenesis of HGPS.