Mechanism of TGF-beta signaling to growth arrest, apoptosis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition

Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2009 Apr;21(2):166-76. doi: 10.1016/j.ceb.2009.01.021. Epub 2009 Feb 23.

Abstract

Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family have important roles during embryogenesis, as well as in the control of tissue homeostasis in the adult. They exert their cellular effects via binding to serine/threonine kinase receptors. Members of the Smad family of transcription factors are important intracellular messengers, and recent studies have shown that the ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 mediates other specific signals. TGF-beta signaling is tightly controlled by post-translational modifications, which regulate the activity, stability, and subcellular localization of the signaling components. The aim of this review is to summarize some of the recent findings on the mechanism of TGF-beta signaling to growth arrest, apoptosis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Active Transport, Cell Nucleus / physiology
  • Apoptosis / physiology*
  • Cell Cycle / physiology
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology*
  • Epithelium / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Mesoderm / physiology*
  • MicroRNAs / metabolism
  • Neoplastic Stem Cells / physiology
  • Protein Isoforms / metabolism
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • Protein Structure, Quaternary
  • Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / chemistry
  • Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*
  • Smad Proteins / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / chemistry
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism*

Substances

  • MicroRNAs
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Smad Proteins
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta