Mitochondrial (mt) genomic study may reveal significant insight into the molecular evolution and several other aspects of genome evolution such as gene rearrangements evolution, gene regulation, and replication mechanisms. Other questions such as patterns of gene expression mechanism evolution, genomic variation and its correlation with physiology, and other molecular and biochemical mechanisms can be addressed by the mt genomics. Rare genomic changes have attracted evolutionary biology community for providing homoplasy free evidence of phylogenetic relationships. Gene rearrangements are considered to be rare evolutionary events and are being used to reconstruct the phylogeny of diverse group of organisms. Mt gene rearrangements have been established as a hotspot for the phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis of closely as well as distantly related organisms.
Keywords: evolution; gene expression; gene regulation; genomic variation; mitochondrial gene; replication.