E and ID proteins branch out

Nat Rev Immunol. 2009 Mar;9(3):175-84. doi: 10.1038/nri2507.


E and inhibitor of DNA binding (ID) proteins are transcriptional regulators that function in many developmental processes in vertebrates and invertebrates. One subset of E proteins, the E2A proteins, have a central role in the transcriptional regulatory networks that promote commitment to and differentiation of the B- and T-cell lineages, and their function in these lineages is modulated by ID proteins. In this Review, I discuss recent studies that reveal a more extensive role for E and ID proteins in the transcriptional networks that drive the differentiation of many lymphoid lineages, as well as new functions for these proteins in haematopoietic stem cells and their multipotent, but lymphoid-primed, progeny.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / immunology*
  • Cell Lineage
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / immunology*
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology
  • Humans
  • Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins / immunology*
  • Killer Cells, Natural / immunology
  • Lymphopoiesis
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology


  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins
  • TCF3 protein, human