[The Analyses of Neurotransmitter's Ensuring of System Brain Neurons Organisation by Learning: The Excitation, Inhibition, Disinhibition]

Usp Fiziol Nauk. Oct-Dec 2008;39(4):14-39.
[Article in Russian]


The analysis of neurophysiological and neurotransmitter implementing of nervous processing: excitation, inhibition and disinhibition that were distinguished by Pavlov's school was fulfilled in the paper. The systematization of our data and one of literature permits to do the next conslucision. (I) The increasing of inhibitory hyperpolarization processes that become apparent in increasing of slow potential oscillations (SPO) and phasic neuronal activity (alternation of activation and inhibition of action potentials) determines the elaboration of internal inhibition. The basic neurotransmitter of hyperpolarization inhibition in the brain cortes is gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). (II) The reinforcement and, after a few combination with it, a conditional stimulus call the activation of electroencephalogram (EEG). On the background of activation EEG take place the transfer of neurons from chaotic or irregular group action potentials to the next forms activity: (1) the acceleration of action potentials, (2) tonic flows of impulses due to decreasing of inhibitory pauses and postinhibitory activation, in other words, disinhibition, (3) tonic inhibition of action potentials in brain cortex, (4) the most part of neurons of hippocampus and other structures of limbic system works in the rhythm theta--5-7 c/sec on the background of activation of EEG. (III) The glutamatergic neurotransmitter system plays the important role in the transmission of "modal-specific" influences of conditional and unconditional stimuli. The cholinergic and other neurotransmitter systems take part in the transmission of "modal-nonspecific" influences. (IV) The tonic inhibition that appears by EEG activation, it may be, plays the important role in realization of external inhibition. (V) Neurophysiological and neurotransmitter basis of behavioral disinhibition, presumably, can have several reasons: (1) a simple exceeding of excitatory influences over inhibitory one, (2) "the inhibition of inhibition", (3) "depolarization induced suppression of inhibition" (DSI).

MeSH terms

  • Action Potentials / drug effects
  • Animals
  • Behavior, Animal / drug effects
  • Brain / cytology
  • Brain / drug effects
  • Brain / physiology*
  • Conditioning, Classical / drug effects
  • GABA Agents / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Inhibition, Psychological*
  • Learning* / drug effects
  • Neurons / drug effects
  • Neurons / physiology*
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / pharmacology*
  • gamma-Aminobutyric Acid / pharmacology


  • GABA Agents
  • Neurotransmitter Agents
  • gamma-Aminobutyric Acid