Although molecularly targeted therapies have been effective in some cancer types, no targeted therapy is approved for use in endometrial cancer. The recent identification of activating mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) in endometrial tumors has generated a new avenue for the development of targeted therapeutic agents. The majority of the mutations identified are identical to germline mutations in FGFR2 and FGFR3 that cause craniosynostosis and hypochondroplasia syndromes and result in both ligand-independent and ligand-dependent receptor activation. Mutations that predominantly occur in the endometrioid subtype of endometrial cancer, are mutually exclusive with KRAS mutation, but occur in the presence of PTEN abrogation. In vitro studies have shown that endometrial cancer cell lines with activating FGFR2 mutations are selectively sensitive to a pan-FGFR inhibitor, PD173074. Several agents with activity against FGFRs are currently in clinical trials. Investigation of these agents in endometrial cancer patients with activating FGFR2 mutations is warranted.