Regulation of virulence and antibiotic resistance by two-component regulatory systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2009 Mar;33(2):279-94. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2008.00135.x.


The Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa ubiquitously inhabits soil and water habitats and also causes serious, often antibiotic resistant, infections in immunocompromised patients (e.g. cystic fibrosis). This versatility is mediated in part by a large repertoire of two-component regulatory systems that appear instrumental in the regulation of both virulence processes and resistance to antimicrobials. Major two-component regulatory system proteins demonstrated to regulate these diverse processes include PhoP-PhoQ, GacA-GacS, RetS, LadS, and AlgR, among others. Here, we summarize the current body of knowledge of these and other two-component systems that provides insight into the complex regulation of virulence and resistance in P. aeruginosa.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Bacterial Proteins* / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins* / metabolism
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial*
  • Humans
  • Pseudomonas Infections / microbiology
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / drug effects*
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / pathogenicity*
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Virulence


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Bacterial Proteins