Eicosanoids have been implicated in a vast number of devastating inflammatory conditions, including arthritis, atherosclerosis, pain, and cancer. Currently, over a hundred different eicosanoids have been identified, with many having potent bioactive signaling capacity. These lipid metabolites are synthesized de novo by at least 50 unique enzymes, many of which have been cloned and characterized. Due to the extensive characterization of eicosanoid biosynthetic pathways, this field provides a unique framework for integrating genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics toward the investigation of disease pathology. To facilitate a concerted systems biology approach, this review outlines the proteins implicated in eicosanoid biosynthesis and signaling in human, mouse, and rat. Applications of the extensive genomic and lipidomic research to date illustrate the questions in eicosanoid signaling that could be uniquely addressed by a thorough analysis of the entire eicosanoid proteome.