Eight hours of hypotensive versus normotensive resuscitation in a porcine model of controlled hemorrhagic shock

Acad Emerg Med. 2008 Sep;15(9):845-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2008.00202.x.


Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare hypotensive and normotensive resuscitation in a porcine model of hemorrhagic shock.

Methods: This was a prospective, comparative, randomized survival study of controlled hemorrhagic shock using 28 male Yorkshire-Landrace pigs (15 to 25 kg). In 24 splenectomized pigs, the authors induced hemorrhagic shock to a systolic blood pressure (sBP) of 48 to 58 mm Hg (approximately 35% bleed). Pigs were randomized to undergo normotensive resuscitation (sBP of 90 mm Hg, n = 7), mild hypotensive resuscitation (sBP of 80 mm Hg, n = 7), severe hypotensive resuscitation (sBP of 65 mm Hg, n = 6), or no resuscitation (n = 4). The authors also included a sham group of animals that were instrumented and splenectomized, but that did not undergo hemorrhagic shock (n = 4). After the initial 8 hours of randomized pressure-targeted resuscitation, all animals were resuscitated to a sBP of 90 mm Hg for 16 hours.

Results: Animals that underwent severe hypotensive resuscitation were less likely to survive, compared with animals that underwent normotensive resuscitation. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased with hemorrhage and increased appropriately with pressure-targeted resuscitation. Base excess (BE) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) decreased in all animals that underwent hemorrhagic shock. This decrease persisted only in animals that were pressure target resuscitated to a sBP of 65 mm Hg.

Conclusions: In this model of controlled hemorrhagic shock, initial severe hypotensive pressure-targeted resuscitation for 8 hours was associated with an increased mortality rate and led to a persistent base deficit (BD) and to decreased StO2, suggesting persistent metabolic stress and tissue hypoxia. However, mild hypotensive resuscitation did not lead to a persistent BD or to decreased StO2, suggesting less metabolic stress and less tissue hypoxia.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Hypotension / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Prospective Studies
  • Random Allocation
  • Resuscitation / methods*
  • Shock, Hemorrhagic / physiopathology
  • Shock, Hemorrhagic / therapy*
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Survival Rate
  • Swine