Acetylcholinesterase activity was compared in control, rapid eye movement sleep-deprived and recovered rat brain. The activity was estimated in the whole brain, cerebrum, brain stem and cerebellum. Flower pot technique was used for continuing deprivation for two, four and eight days. The results showed that the enzyme activity increased significantly in the deprived rat brain and it returned to control/normal level on recovery. The enzyme activity increased first in the brain stem, while the activity in the cerebellum showed no significant change. Control experiments suggest that the increase was primarily caused by the deprivation. The finding fits well with existing knowledge and would possibly help in explaining earlier observations.